Norfolk island dating by site
It is outstanding for its picturesque setting, historic associations, part ruinous configuration and subsequent lack of development.
Europeans were not the first people to inhabit Norfolk Island.
By 1804 the free settlers on the island significantly outnumbered the convicts who represented 23 percent of the total population of 1084.
On its abandonment in 1814 the settlement's buildings were destroyed.
KAVHA was included in the National Heritage List on 1 August 2007.
Visitors to KAVHA can take a guided tour, follow walking trails or visit the open house at No. The Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area (KAVHA) is one of 11 places that make up the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage serial listing, inscribed on 31 July 2010. As a place of secondary punishment, KAVHA developed a reputation as one of the harshest and cruellest of Australia's penal settlements.
Cook reported the island had rich soils, tall pines suitable for ships masts and spars, and native flax that could be used for making canvas.
Governor Philip had instructions to settle and secure the island as soon as possible to secure its potential naval supplies.
KAVHA is located on the southern side of Norfolk Island, which lies 1,600 kilometres to the east-north-east of Sydney.In response to the report by Commissioner Bigge (1822-23) on the effectiveness of transportation, the Colonial Secretary Lord Bathurst instructed Governor Brisbane in 1824 to re-occupy the island as a 'great hulk or penitentiary' to provide secondary punishment.Secondary punishment was designed to revive the fear of transportation and deter crime in Britain and the colonies, and was a sentence applied to transported convicts who re-offended in the colony.To relieve the food pressures in the infant colony of New South Wales, Governor Philip relocated around one-third Sydney's population to Kingston.Extensive clearing followed and both convicts and free settlers farmed small holdings of land.