Free xxx dating in zambia

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11 However, until this occurs, data on Zambia’s key populations remains limited.Same sex intercourse is illegal in Zambia.12 What is currently known about this group is that men who have sex with men experience a heightened vulnerability to HIV for a multitude of reasons including alcohol abuse, low levels of education, being subjected to discrimination and low economic status.13 The Zambian government's own progress report alludes to one small-scale study in 2008, which puts HIV prevalence among this group at just 1%.In 2015, a study conducted by Zambia’s National AIDS Council (ZAC), FHI360 and Tropical Diseases Research Centre (TDRC) of more than 1,000 female sex workers and male long distance truck drivers found HIV prevalence among female sex workers to be 56.4%.However, prevalence among female sex workers ranged from 46% in Livingstone to 73% in Chirundu.15 Around 47% of female sex workers reported having had five or more different sex partners in the last seven days and nearly 9% reporting 10 to 14 sex partners over the same period.However, Zambia’s Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) 2013-14 found 46% of female respondents and 37% of male respondents (aged 15-49) reported having an HIV test in the past 12 months and knowing their results.35 In 2016, PEPFAR reported that 42% of young people (aged 15-24) were aware of their HIV status.36 A study in 2012 found a combination of reasons explaining why people were not testing, including a fear of stigma, rejection by their sexual partner, a fear of antiretroviral treatment, and a belief that traditional medicine would keep them healthy if they became ill.These beliefs are ill-informed, but also reflect the continued stigma around HIV in Zambia.37 Couples counselling and testing is also extremely low in the country, despite this being an effective route to testing more people for HIV elsewhere.38 Despite low uptake, increased provision of HIV testing has been evident, with access now available at many VMMC, PMTCT, STI testing and blood testing sites.Zambia’s revised National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (R-NASF) 2014 – 2016 now includes indicators on sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs.9 Between 20, the Population Council and partners have been conducting the first integrated biological and behavioural research in Zambia to determine the population size, HIV prevalence and incidence among sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs.This research will also identify social risk factors such as stigma and discrimination, alcohol and drug use, lack of access to services, and the absence of a social support network.10 Once published, the survey’s findings will provide national policymakers with objective evidence to inform HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs for key populations.

The number of sex workers in Zambia is disputed, as is the HIV prevalence among this population, with studies reporting vastly different statistics.

This equates to 67% of women and 56% of men living with HIV receiving ART.41 Zambia has adopted 2013 WHO treatment guidelines that recommends anyone who tests positive for HIV should be started on treatment, regardless of their CD4 count, which indicates the level of virus in someone’s body.

This is particularly important as early treatment can increase the likelihood of someone achieving viral suppression, when levels of HIV are so low the virus is effectively suppressed and so is much less likely to be transmitted.

This is due to them experiencing exploitation, abuse and gender-based violence both on their journey and at their destination which is more likely when they are temporary migrant with few employment rights.21 In 2015, 640,000 of the 1.1 million adults (aged 15 and over) living with HIV in Zambia were women.22 Prevalence is much higher among younger women than younger men, standing at 11.2% for women and 7.3% for men aged 20-24.23 This reflects three main factors: Zambian society and culture is extremely patriarchal, limiting the power of women in relationships.

Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom.

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